2. us präsident

2. us präsident

William Jefferson „Bill“ Clinton (* August in Hope, Arkansas, als. Die Whig Party war eine politische Partei in den Vereinigten Staaten von. Warum nur eine Militärparade? Gebt ihm mehr und teurer darfs ruhig auch sein. Am Besten täglich nach dem Frühstück. Dann wird der Großteil.

The president is the head of the executive branch of the federal government and is constitutionally obligated to "take care that the laws be faithfully executed".

Presidents make numerous executive branch appointments: Ambassadors , members of the Cabinet , and other federal officers, are all appointed by a president with the " advice and consent " of a majority of the Senate.

When the Senate is in recess for at least ten days, the president may make recess appointments. The power of a president to fire executive officials has long been a contentious political issue.

Generally, a president may remove executive officials purely at will. To manage the growing federal bureaucracy, presidents have gradually surrounded themselves with many layers of staff, who were eventually organized into the Executive Office of the President of the United States.

Within the Executive Office, the president's innermost layer of aides and their assistants are located in the White House Office. Additionally, the president possesses the power to manage operations of the federal government through issuing various types of directives, such as presidential proclamation and executive orders.

When the president is lawfully exercising one of the constitutionally conferred presidential responsibilities, the scope of this power is broad.

Moreover, Congress can overturn an executive order though legislation e. The president also has the power to nominate federal judges , including members of the United States courts of appeals and the Supreme Court of the United States.

However, these nominations require Senate confirmation. Securing Senate approval can provide a major obstacle for presidents who wish to orient the federal judiciary toward a particular ideological stance.

When nominating judges to U. Presidents may also grant pardons and reprieves. Gerald Ford pardoned Richard Nixon a month after taking office.

Bill Clinton pardoned Patty Hearst on his last day in office, as is often done just before the end of a second presidential term, but not without controversy.

Historically, two doctrines concerning executive power have developed that enable the president to exercise executive power with a degree of autonomy.

The first is executive privilege , which allows the president to withhold from disclosure any communications made directly to the president in the performance of executive duties.

George Washington first claimed the privilege when Congress requested to see Chief Justice John Jay 's notes from an unpopular treaty negotiation with Great Britain.

While not enshrined in the Constitution, or any other law, Washington's action created the precedent for the privilege. When Nixon tried to use executive privilege as a reason for not turning over subpoenaed evidence to Congress during the Watergate scandal , the Supreme Court ruled in United States v.

Nixon , U. When President Clinton attempted to use executive privilege regarding the Lewinsky scandal , the Supreme Court ruled in Clinton v.

Jones , U. These cases established the legal precedent that executive privilege is valid, although the exact extent of the privilege has yet to be clearly defined.

Additionally, federal courts have allowed this privilege to radiate outward and protect other executive branch employees, but have weakened that protection for those executive branch communications that do not involve the president.

The state secrets privilege allows the president and the executive branch to withhold information or documents from discovery in legal proceedings if such release would harm national security.

Precedent for the privilege arose early in the 19th century when Thomas Jefferson refused to release military documents in the treason trial of Aaron Burr and again in Totten v.

United States 92 U. Supreme Court until United States v. The Constitution's Ineligibility Clause prevents the president and all other executive officers from simultaneously being a member of Congress.

Therefore, the president cannot directly introduce legislative proposals for consideration in Congress.

However, the president can take an indirect role in shaping legislation, especially if the president's political party has a majority in one or both houses of Congress.

For example, the president or other officials of the executive branch may draft legislation and then ask senators or representatives to introduce these drafts into Congress.

The president can further influence the legislative branch through constitutionally or statutorily mandated, periodic reports to Congress.

These reports may be either written or oral, but today the greatest in importance are given as the oral State of the Union addresses, which often outline the president's legislative proposals for the coming year.

Additionally, the president may attempt to have Congress alter proposed legislation by threatening to veto that legislation unless requested changes are made.

In the 20th century, critics charged that too many legislative and budgetary powers that should have belonged to Congress had slid into the hands of presidents.

As the head of the executive branch, presidents control a vast array of agencies that can issue regulations with little oversight from Congress.

One critic charged that presidents could appoint a "virtual army of 'czars' — each wholly unaccountable to Congress yet tasked with spearheading major policy efforts for the White House".

If both houses cannot agree on a date of adjournment, the president may appoint a date for Congress to adjourn.

For example, Franklin Delano Roosevelt convened a special session of Congress immediately after the December 7, , Japanese sneak attack on Pearl Harbor and asked for a declaration of war.

As head of state, the president can fulfill traditions established by previous presidents. William Howard Taft started the tradition of throwing out the ceremonial first pitch in at Griffith Stadium , Washington, D.

Every president since Taft, except for Jimmy Carter , threw out at least one ceremonial first ball or pitch for Opening Day, the All-Star Game , or the World Series , usually with much fanfare.

The President of the United States has served as the honorary president of the Boy Scouts of America since the founding of the organization.

Other presidential traditions are associated with American holidays. Hayes began in the first White House egg rolling for local children. Truman administration, every Thanksgiving the president is presented with a live domestic turkey during the annual National Thanksgiving Turkey Presentation held at the White House.

Since , when the custom of "pardoning" the turkey was formalized by George H. Bush , the turkey has been taken to a farm where it will live out the rest of its natural life.

Presidential traditions also involve the president's role as head of government. Many outgoing presidents since James Buchanan traditionally give advice to their successor during the presidential transition.

During a state visit by a foreign head of state, the president typically hosts a State Arrival Ceremony held on the South Lawn , a custom begun by John F.

The modern presidency holds the president as one of the nation's premier celebrities. Some argue that images of the presidency have a tendency to be manipulated by administration public relations officials as well as by presidents themselves.

One critic described the presidency as "propagandized leadership" which has a "mesmerizing power surrounding the office". Kennedy was described as carefully framed "in rich detail" which "drew on the power of myth" regarding the incident of PT [66] and wrote that Kennedy understood how to use images to further his presidential ambitions.

The nation's Founding Fathers expected the Congress —which was the first branch of government described in the Constitution —to be the dominant branch of government; they did not expect a strong executive department.

Nelson believes presidents over the past thirty years have worked towards "undivided presidential control of the executive branch and its agencies".

Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 of the Constitution sets three qualifications for holding the presidency. To serve as president, one must:.

A person who meets the above qualifications would, however, still be disqualified from holding the office of president under any of the following conditions:.

The modern presidential campaign begins before the primary elections , which the two major political parties use to clear the field of candidates before their national nominating conventions , where the most successful candidate is made the party's nominee for president.

Typically, the party's presidential candidate chooses a vice presidential nominee, and this choice is rubber-stamped by the convention. The most common previous profession of U.

Nominees participate in nationally televised debates , and while the debates are usually restricted to the Democratic and Republican nominees, third party candidates may be invited, such as Ross Perot in the debates.

Nominees campaign across the country to explain their views, convince voters and solicit contributions. Much of the modern electoral process is concerned with winning swing states through frequent visits and mass media advertising drives.

The president is elected indirectly by the voters of each state and the District of Columbia through the Electoral College, a body of electors formed every four years for the sole purpose of electing the president and vice president to concurrent four-year terms.

As prescribed by the Twelfth Amendment, each state is entitled to a number of electors equal to the size of its total delegation in both houses of Congress.

Additionally, the Twenty-third Amendment provides that the District of Columbia is entitled to the number it would have if it were a state, but in no case more than that of the least populous state.

On the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December, about six weeks after the election, the electors convene in their respective state capitals and in Washington D.

They typically vote for the candidates of the party that nominated them. While there is no constitutional mandate or federal law requiring them to do so, the District of Columbia and 30 states have laws requiring that their electors vote for the candidates to whom they are pledged.

The votes of the electors are opened and counted during a joint session of Congress, held in the first week of January. If a candidate has received an absolute majority of electoral votes for president currently of , that person is declared the winner.

Otherwise, the House of Representatives must meet to elect a president using a contingent election procedure in which representatives, voting by state delegation, with each state casting a single vote, choose between the top electoral vote-getters for president.

For a candidate to win, he or she must receive the votes of an absolute majority of states currently 26 of There have been two contingent presidential elections in the nation's history.

A 73—73 electoral vote tie between Thomas Jefferson and fellow Democratic-Republican Aaron Burr in the election of necessitated the first.

Conducted under the original procedure established by Article II, Section 1, Clause 3 of the Constitution, which stipulates that if two or three persons received a majority vote and an equal vote, the House of Representatives would choose one of them for president; the runner up would become Vice President.

Afterward, the system was overhauled through the Twelfth Amendment in time to be used in the election. Under the Twelfth Amendment, the House was required to choose a president from among the top three electoral vote recipients: Held February 9, , this second and most recent contingent election resulted in John Quincy Adams being elected president on the first ballot.

Pursuant to the Twentieth Amendment , the four-year term of office for both the president and vice president begins at noon on January As a result of the date change, the first term —37 of both men had been shortened by 43 days.

Before executing the powers of the office, a president is required to recite the presidential oath of office , found in Article II, Section 1, Clause 8.

This is the only component in the inauguration ceremony mandated by the Constitution:. I do solemnly swear or affirm that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.

Presidents have traditionally placed one hand upon a Bible while taking the oath, and have added "So help me God" to the end of the oath.

When the first president, George Washington, announced in his Farewell Address that he was not running for a third term, he established a "two-terms then out" precedent.

Precedent became tradition after Thomas Jefferson publicly embraced the principle a decade later during his second term, as did his two immediate successors, James Madison and James Monroe.

Grant sought a non-consecutive third term in , [98] as did Theodore Roosevelt in though it would have been only his second full term.

In , after leading the nation through the Great Depression , Franklin Roosevelt was elected to a third term, breaking the self-imposed precedent.

Four years later, with the U. In response to the unprecedented length of Roosevelt's presidency, the Twenty-second Amendment was adopted in The amendment bars anyone from being elected president more than twice, or once if that person served more than two years 24 months of another president's four-year term.

Truman , president when this term limit came into force, was exempted from its limitations, and briefly sought a second full term—to which he would have otherwise been ineligible for election, as he had been president for more than two years of Roosevelt's fourth term—before he withdrew from the election.

Since the amendment's adoption, five presidents have served two full terms: Bush , and Barack Obama. Both Jimmy Carter and George H.

Bush sought a second term, but were defeated. Richard Nixon was elected to a second term, but resigned before completing it. Johnson , having held the presidency for one full term in addition to only 14 months of John F.

Kennedy 's unexpired term, was eligible for a second full term in , but withdrew from Democratic Primary. Additionally, Gerald Ford , who served out the last two years and five months of Nixon's second term, sought a full term, but was defeated by Jimmy Carter in the election.

Article II, Section 4 of the Constitution allows for the removal of high federal officials, including the president, from office for " treason , bribery , or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

Two presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives: Andrew Johnson in , and Bill Clinton in Both were acquitted by the senate: Johnson by one vote, and Clinton by 17 votes.

Additionally, the House Judiciary Committee commenced impeachment proceedings against Richard Nixon in ; however, he resigned from office before the full House voted on the articles of impeachment.

Succession to or vacancies in the office of president may arise under several possible circumstances: Deaths have occurred a number of times, resignation has occurred only once, and removal from office has never occurred.

Under Section 3 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the president may transfer the presidential powers and duties to the vice president, who then becomes acting president , by transmitting a statement to the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate stating the reasons for the transfer.

The president resumes the discharge of the presidential powers and duties upon transmitting, to those two officials, a written declaration stating that resumption.

Such a transfer of power has occurred on three occasions: Ronald Reagan to George H. Bush once, on July 13, , and George W.

Bush to Dick Cheney twice, on June 29, , and on July 21, Under Section 4 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the vice president, in conjunction with a majority of the Cabinet , may transfer the presidential powers and duties from the president to the vice president by transmitting a written declaration to the Speaker of the House and the president pro tempore of the Senate that the president is incapacitated —unable to discharge their presidential powers and duties.

If this occurs, then the vice president will assume the presidential powers and duties as acting president; however, the president can declare that no such inability exists and resume the discharge of the presidential powers and duties.

If the vice president and Cabinet contest this claim, it is up to Congress, which must meet within two days if not already in session, to decide the merit of the claim.

Section 1 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment states that the vice president becomes president upon the removal from office, death, or resignation of the preceding president.

Speaker of the House, then, if necessary, the President pro tempore of the Senate, and then if necessary, the eligible heads of federal executive departments who form the president's Cabinet.

The Cabinet currently has 15 members, of which the Secretary of State is first in line; the other Cabinet secretaries follow in the order in which their department or the department of which their department is the successor was created.

Those department heads who are constitutionally ineligible to be elected to the presidency are also disqualified from assuming the powers and duties of the presidency through succession.

No statutory successor has yet been called upon to act as president. Throughout most of its history, politics of the United States have been dominated by political parties.

Political parties had not been anticipated when the U. Constitution was drafted in , nor did they exist at the time of the first presidential election in — Organized political parties developed in the U.

Those who supported the Washington administration were referred to as "pro-administration" and would eventually form the Federalist Party , while those in opposition joined the emerging Democratic-Republican Party.

Greatly concerned about the very real capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency.

He was, and remains, the only U. The number of presidents per political party at the time of entry into office are: The president's salary is set by Congress, and under Article II, Section 1, Clause 7 of the Constitution, may not be increased or reduced during his or her current term of office.

The White House in Washington, D. The site was selected by George Washington, and the cornerstone was laid in Every president since John Adams in has lived there.

At various times in U. The federal government pays for state dinners and other official functions, but the president pays for personal, family, and guest dry cleaning and food.

Camp David , officially titled Naval Support Facility Thurmont, a mountain-based military camp in Frederick County, Maryland , is the president's country residence.

A place of solitude and tranquility, the site has been used extensively to host foreign dignitaries since the s.

Blair House , located next to the Eisenhower Executive Office Building at the White House Complex and Lafayette Park , serves as the president's official guest house and as a secondary residence for the president if needed.

The primary means of long distance air travel for the president is one of two identical Boeing VC aircraft, which are extensively modified Boeing airliners and are referred to as Air Force One while the president is on board although any U.

Air Force aircraft the president is aboard is designated as "Air Force One" for the duration of the flight. In-country trips are typically handled with just one of the two planes, while overseas trips are handled with both, one primary and one backup.

The president also has access to smaller Air Force aircraft, most notably the Boeing C , which are used when the president must travel to airports that cannot support a jumbo jet.

Any civilian aircraft the president is aboard is designated Executive One for the flight. For short distance air travel, the president has access to a fleet of U.

Marine Corps helicopters of varying models, designated Marine One when the president is aboard any particular one in the fleet.

Flights are typically handled with as many as five helicopters all flying together and frequently swapping positions as to disguise which helicopter the president is actually aboard to any would-be threats.

For ground travel, the president uses the presidential state car , which is an armored limousine designed to look like a Cadillac sedan, but built on a truck chassis.

The president also has access to two armored motorcoaches , which are primarily used for touring trips. The presidential plane, called Air Force One when the president is inside.

Marine One helicopter, when the president is aboard. Secret Service is charged with protecting the president and the first family.

As part of their protection, presidents, first ladies , their children and other immediate family members, and other prominent persons and locations are assigned Secret Service codenames.

Under the Former Presidents Act , all living former presidents are granted a pension, an office, and a staff. The pension has increased numerous times with Congressional approval.

Prior to , all former presidents, their spouses, and their children until age 16 were protected by the Secret Service until the president's death.

Bush , and all subsequent presidents. Some presidents have had significant careers after leaving office. Grover Cleveland , whose bid for reelection failed in , was elected president again four years later in Two former presidents served in Congress after leaving the White House: John Quincy Adams was elected to the House of Representatives, serving there for seventeen years, and Andrew Johnson returned to the Senate in John Tyler served in the provisional Congress of the Confederate States during the Civil War and was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives, but died before that body first met.

Presidents may use their predecessors as emissaries to deliver private messages to other nations or as official representatives of the United States to state funerals and other important foreign events.

Bill Clinton has also worked as an informal ambassador, most recently in the negotiations that led to the release of two American journalists , Laura Ling and Euna Lee , from North Korea.

Clinton has also been active politically since his presidential term ended, working with his wife Hillary on her and presidential bids and President Obama on his reelection campaign.

There are currently since January 20, five living former presidents. In order of office they are:. Jimmy Carter age 94 since Bush age 94 since Bill Clinton age 72 since Bush age 72 since Barack Obama age 57 since Every president since Herbert Hoover has created a repository known as a presidential library for preserving and making available his papers, records, and other documents and materials.

Completed libraries are deeded to and maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration NARA ; the initial funding for building and equipping each library must come from private, non-federal sources.

There are also presidential libraries maintained by state governments and private foundations and Universities of Higher Education, such as the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum , which is run by the State of Illinois , the George W.

A number of presidents have lived for many years after leaving office, and several of them have personally overseen the building and opening of their own presidential libraries.

Some have even made arrangements for their own burial at the site. Several presidential libraries contain the graves of the president they document, including the Dwight D.

These gravesites are open to the general public. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the political talk radio channel, see P. For other uses, see President of the United States disambiguation.

For a list, see List of Presidents of the United States. Executive branch of the U. Government Executive Office of the President.

President [1] [2] The Honorable [3]. Head of State Head of Government. Constitution of the United States Law Taxation.

Presidential elections Midterm elections Off-year elections. Democratic Republican Third parties. Powers of the President of the United States. Suffice it to say that the President is made the sole repository of the executive powers of the United States, and the powers entrusted to him as well as the duties imposed upon him are awesome indeed.

For further information, see List of people pardoned or granted clemency by the President of the United States.

Four ruffles and flourishes and 'Hail to the Chief' long version. Imperial Presidency and Imperiled Presidency. United States presidential primary , United States presidential nominating convention , United States presidential election debates , and United States presidential election.

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September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Government of the United States portal. Phillips for the rapid transmission of press reports by telegraph.

Truman ; Lyndon B. Johnson ; and Gerald Ford Tyler's policy priorities as president soon proved to be opposed to most of the Whig agenda, and he was expelled from the party in September Later, while president, Johnson tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union banner.

Near the end of his presidency, Johnson rejoined the Democratic Party. The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 26, Retrieved November 15, Retrieved September 4, The People Debate the Constitution, — New York, New York: A forgotten huge day in American history".

Retrieved July 29, Retrieved January 22, The History of Power". Proceedings of the American Political Science Association. Origins and Development 5th ed.

Its Origins and Development. Another son, also named Franklin , was born in , and the youngest child, John , was born in Roosevelt had various extra-marital affairs, including one with Eleanor's social secretary Lucy Mercer , which began soon after she was hired in early Franklin contemplated divorcing Eleanor, but Sara objected strongly and Lucy would not agree to marry a divorced man with five children.

Eleanor never truly forgave him, and their marriage from that point on was more of a political partnership. The emotional break in their marriage was so severe that when Roosevelt asked Eleanor in —in light of his failing health—to come back home and live with him again, she refused.

Franklin broke his promise to Eleanor to refrain from having affairs. He and Lucy maintained a formal correspondence, and began seeing each other again in , or perhaps earlier.

Despite this, Roosevelt's affair was not widely known until the s. Aides began to refer to her at the time as "the president's girlfriend", [48] and gossip linking the two romantically appeared in the newspapers.

Roosevelt held little passion for the practice of law and confided to friends that he planned to eventually enter politics. Roosevelt was an attractive recruit for the party because Theodore Roosevelt was still one of the country's most prominent politicians, and a Democratic Roosevelt was good publicity; the candidate could also pay for his own campaign.

Rather than putting his political hopes on hold, Roosevelt ran for a seat in the state senate. Though legislative sessions rarely lasted more than ten weeks, Roosevelt treated his new position as a full-time career.

In the U. Senate election , which was determined in a joint session of the New York state legislature, [c] Roosevelt and nineteen other Democrats caused a prolonged deadlock by opposing a series of Tammany-backed candidates.

Finally, Tammany threw its backing behind James A. O'Gorman , a highly regarded judge who Roosevelt found acceptable, and O'Gorman won the election in late March.

Roosevelt, again in opposition to Tammany Hall, supported New Jersey Governor Woodrow Wilson 's successful bid for the Democratic nomination , earning an informal designation as an original Wilson man.

Franklin's decision to back Wilson over Theodore Roosevelt in the general election alienated some members of his family, although Theodore himself was not offended.

Overcoming a bout with typhoid fever , and due to the help of journalist Louis McHenry Howe , Roosevelt was re-elected in the elections.

After the elections, he served as chairman of the Agriculture Committee, and his success with farm and labor bills was a precursor to his New Deal policies twenty years later.

Roosevelt's support of Wilson led to his appointment in March as Assistant Secretary of the Navy , the second-ranking official in the Navy Department after Secretary Josephus Daniels.

Glynn , he faced a formidable opponent in the Tammany-backed James W. Roosevelt learned a valuable lesson, that federal patronage alone, without White House support, could not defeat a strong local organization.

Following his defeat in the Senate primary, Roosevelt refocused on the Navy Department. Though he remained publicly supportive of Wilson, Roosevelt sympathized with the Preparedness Movement , whose leaders strongly favored the Allied Powers and called for a military build-up.

Congress approved the declaration of war on Germany on April 6. Roosevelt requested that he be allowed to serve as a naval officer, but Wilson insisted that he continue to serve as Assistant Secretary of the Navy.

For the next year, Roosevelt remained in Washington to coordinate the mobilization, supply, and deployment of naval vessels and personnel.

On the day voyage, the pandemic influenza virus struck and killed many on board. Roosevelt became very ill with influenza and a complicating pneumonia, but he recovered by the time the ship landed in New York.

Roosevelt and his associates approached Herbert Hoover about running for the Democratic presidential nomination, with Roosevelt as his running mate. Roosevelt's plan to convince Hoover to run for the Democratic nomination fell through after Hoover publicly declared himself to be a Republican, but Roosevelt nonetheless decided to seek the vice presidential nomination.

After Governor James M. Cox of Ohio won the party's presidential nomination, he chose Roosevelt as his running mate, and the party formally nominated Roosevelt by acclamation.

Roosevelt resigned as Assistant Secretary of the Navy after the Democratic convention and campaigned across the nation for the Cox—Roosevelt ticket.

During the campaign, Cox and Roosevelt defended the Wilson administration and the League of Nations , both of which were unpopular in Harding and Calvin Coolidge in the presidential election by a wide margin, and the Republican ticket carried every state outside of the South.

The election also saw the first public participation of Eleanor Roosevelt who, with the support of Louis Howe , established herself as a valuable political ally.

After the election, Roosevelt returned to New York City, where he practiced law and served as a vice president of the Fidelity and Deposit Company.

His main symptoms were fever; symmetric, ascending paralysis; facial paralysis; bowel and bladder dysfunction; numbness and hyperesthesia; and a descending pattern of recovery.

Roosevelt was left permanently paralyzed from the waist down. Though his mother favored his retirement from public life, Roosevelt, his wife, and Roosevelt's close friend and adviser, Louis Howe, were all determined that Roosevelt continue his political career.

He usually appeared in public standing upright, supported on one side by an aide or one of his sons. Beginning in , Roosevelt spent most of his time in the Southern United States, at first on his houseboat, the Larooco.

To create the rehabilitation center, Roosevelt assembled a staff of physical therapists and used most of his inheritance to purchase the Merriweather Inn.

In , Roosevelt founded the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis , leading to the development of polio vaccines. Roosevelt maintained contacts with the Democratic Party during the s, and he remained active in New York politics while also establishing contacts in the South, particularly in Georgia.

Like many others throughout the United States, Roosevelt did not abstain from alcohol during the Prohibition era, but publicly he sought to find a compromise on Prohibition acceptable to both wings of the party.

In , Smith appointed Roosevelt to the Taconic State Park Commission, and his fellow commissioners chose him as chairman. As the Democratic Party presidential nominee in the election , Smith in turn asked Roosevelt to run for governor in the state election.

Roosevelt was also joined on the campaign trail by Samuel Rosenman , Frances Perkins , and James Farley , all of whom would become important political associates.

Upon taking office in January , Roosevelt proposed the construction of a series of hydroelectric power plants and sought to address the ongoing farm crisis of the s.

He also became the first governor to publicly endorse the idea of unemployment insurance. When Roosevelt began his run for a second term in May , he reiterated his doctrine from the campaign two years before: Led first by Jesse I.

Straus and then by Harry Hopkins , the agency assisted well over one third of New York's population between and As the presidential election approached, Roosevelt increasingly turned his attention to national politics.

He established a campaign team led by Howe and Farley and a " brain trust " of policy advisers. Roosevelt's re-election as governor had established him as the front-runner for the Democratic presidential nomination.

Roosevelt rallied the progressive supporters of the Wilson administration while also appealing to many conservatives, establishing himself as the leading candidate in the South and West.

The chief opposition to Roosevelt's candidacy came from Northeastern conservatives such as Al Smith, the Democratic presidential nominee.

Smith hoped to deny Roosevelt the two-thirds support necessary to win the party's presidential nomination at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago, and then emerge as the nominee after multiple rounds of balloting.

Roosevelt entered the convention with a delegate lead due to his success in the Democratic primaries , but most delegates entered the convention unbound to any particular candidate.

On the first presidential ballot of the convention, Roosevelt received the votes of more than half but less than two-thirds of the delegates, with Smith finishing in a distant second place.

Speaker of the House John Nance Garner , who controlled the votes of Texas and California, threw his support behind Roosevelt after the third ballot, and Roosevelt clinched the nomination on the fourth ballot.

With little input from Roosevelt, Garner won the vice presidential nomination. Roosevelt flew in from New York after learning that he had won the nomination, becoming the first major party presidential nominee to accept the nomination in person.

In his acceptance speech, Roosevelt declared, "I pledge you, I pledge myself to a new deal for the American people This is more than a political campaign.

It is a call to arms. Historians and political scientists consider the —36 elections to be realigning elections. Roosevelt's victory was enabled by the creation of the New Deal coalition , small farmers, the Southern whites, Catholics, big city political machines, labor unions, northern African Americans southern ones were still disfranchised , Jews, intellectuals, and political liberals.

Roosevelt was elected in November but, like his predecessors, would not take office until the following March.

After the election, Hoover sought to convince Roosevelt to renounce much of his campaign platform and to endorse the Hoover administration's policies.

Ickes and Henry A. Wallace , two progressive Republicans, were selected for the roles of Secretary of the Interior and Secretary of Agriculture, respectively.

Roosevelt appointed powerful men to top positions but made all the major decisions, regardless of delays, inefficiency or resentment.

Analyzing the president's administrative style, historian James MacGregor Burns concludes:. The president stayed in charge of his administration When Roosevelt was inaugurated on March 4, , the U.

A quarter of the workforce was unemployed. Industrial production had fallen by more than half since Two million people were homeless.

Historians categorized Roosevelt's program as "relief, recovery and reform. Recovery meant boosting the economy back to normal.

Reform meant long-term fixes of what was wrong, especially with the financial and banking systems. Through Roosevelt's series of radio talks, known as fireside chats , he presented his proposals directly to the American public.

On his second day in office, Roosevelt declared a "bank holiday" and called for a special session of Congress to start March 9, on which date Congress passed the Emergency Banking Act.

Roosevelt presided over the establishment of several agencies and measures designed to provide relief for the unemployed and others in need.

Roosevelt also expanded a Hoover agency, the Reconstruction Finance Corporation , making it a major source of financing for railroads and industry.

Congress gave the Federal Trade Commission broad new regulatory powers and provided mortgage relief to millions of farmers and homeowners.

The AAA tried to force higher prices for commodities by paying farmers to leave land uncultivated and to cut herds. It sought to end cutthroat competition by forcing industries to establish rules of operation for all firms within specific industries, such as minimum prices, agreements not to compete, and production restrictions.

Industry leaders negotiated the rules which were approved by NIRA officials. Industry needed to raise wages as a condition for approval.

Provisions encouraged unions and suspended antitrust laws. The act also sought to curb speculation by limiting affiliations between commercial banks and securities firms.

Recovery was pursued through federal spending. Executive Order declared that all privately held gold of American citizens was to be sold to the U.

The goal was to counter the deflation which was paralyzing the economy. But the veterans were well organized and strongly protested, and most benefits were restored or increased by Roosevelt expected that his party would lose several races in the Congressional elections , as the president's party had done in most previous midterm elections , but the Democrats picked up seats in both houses of Congress.

Empowered by the public's apparent vote of confidence in his administration, the first item on Roosevelt's agenda in the 74th Congress was the creation of a social insurance program.

Roosevelt insisted that it should be funded by payroll taxes rather than from the general fund, saying, "We put those payroll contributions there so as to give the contributors a legal, moral, and political right to collect their pensions and unemployment benefits.

With those taxes in there, no damn politician can ever scrap my social security program. But for the first time the federal government took responsibility for the economic security of the aged, the temporarily unemployed, dependent children, and the handicapped.

Roosevelt consolidated the various relief organizations, though some, like the PWA, continued to exist. Under the leadership of Harry Hopkins, the WPA employed over three million people in its first year of existence.

The WPA undertook numerous construction projects and provided funding to the National Youth Administration and arts organizations. Senator Robert Wagner wrote the National Labor Relations Act , which guaranteed workers the rights to collective bargaining through unions of their own choice.

The Wagner Act did not compel employers to reach agreement with their employees, but it opened possibilities for American labor.

While the First New Deal of had broad support from most sectors, the Second New Deal challenged the business community. Burns suggests that Roosevelt's policy decisions were guided more by pragmatism than ideology, and that he "was like the general of a guerrilla army whose columns, fighting blindly in the mountains through dense ravines and thickets, suddenly converge, half by plan and half by coincidence, and debouch into the plain below.

But above all, try something. Though 8 million workers remained unemployed in , economic conditions had improved since and Roosevelt was widely popular.

An attempt by Huey Long and other individuals to organize a left-wing alternative to the Democratic Party collapsed after Long's death in In the presidential election against Republican Alf Landon and a third party candidate, Roosevelt won The election also saw the consolidation of the New Deal coalition; while the Democrats lost some of their traditional allies in big business, they were replaced by groups such as organized labor and African Americans, the latter of whom voted Democratic for the first time since the Civil War.

He won 86 percent of the Jewish vote, 81 percent of Catholics, 80 percent of union members, 76 percent of Southerners, 76 percent of Blacks in northern cities, and 75 percent of people on relief.

Roosevelt carried of the nation's cities with a population of , or more. The Supreme Court became Roosevelt's primary domestic focus during his second term after the court overturned many of his programs, including NIRA.

The more conservative members of the court upheld the principles of the Lochner era , which saw numerous economic regulations struck down on the basis of freedom of contract.

The size of the Court had been set at nine since the passage of the Judiciary Act of , and Congress had altered the number of Justices six other times throughout U.

Starting with the case of West Coast Hotel Co. Parrish , the court began to take a more favorable view of economic regulations. That same year, Roosevelt appointed a Supreme Court Justice for the first time, and by , seven of the nine Justices had been appointed by Roosevelt.

Jackson , Hugo Black , and William O. Douglas , would be particularly influential in re-shaping the jurisprudence of the Court.

With Roosevelt's influence on the wane following the failure of the Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of , conservative Democrats joined with Republicans to block the implementation of further New Deal programs.

The FLSA outlawed child labor , established a federal minimum wage , and required overtime pay for certain employees who work in excess of forty-hours per week.

This managed to eventually create as many as 3. Beyond this, however, Roosevelt recommended to a special congressional session only a permanent national farm act, administrative reorganization, and regional planning measures, all of which were leftovers from a regular session.

According to Burns, this attempt illustrated Roosevelt's inability to decide on a basic economic program. Determined to overcome the opposition of conservative Democrats in Congress, Roosevelt became involved in the Democratic primaries, actively campaigning for challengers who were more supportive of New Deal reform.

Roosevelt failed badly, managing to defeat only one target, a conservative Democrat from New York City. When Congress reconvened in , Republicans under Senator Robert Taft formed a Conservative coalition with Southern Democrats, virtually ending Roosevelt's ability to enact his domestic proposals.

Roosevelt had a lifelong interest in the environment and conservation starting with his youthful interest in forestry on his family estate.

Although Roosevelt was never an outdoorsman or sportsman on Theodore Roosevelt's scale, his growth of the national systems were comparable.

Every state had its own state parks, and Roosevelt made sure that WPA and CCC projects were set up to upgrade them as well as the national systems.

Government spending increased from 8. It increased in "a depression within a depression" but continually declined after The main foreign policy initiative of Roosevelt's first term was the Good Neighbor Policy , which was a re-evaluation of U.

After Roosevelt took office, he withdrew U. In December , Roosevelt signed the Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States, renouncing the right to intervene unilaterally in the affairs of Latin American countries.

The rejection of the Treaty of Versailles during the Wilson administration marked the dominance of isolationism in American foreign policy.

Despite Roosevelt's Wilsonian background, he and Secretary of State Cordell Hull acted with great care not to provoke isolationist sentiment.

The isolationist movement was bolstered in the early to mids by Senator Gerald Nye and others who succeeded in their effort to stop the "merchants of death" in the U.

Germany annexed Austria in , and soon turned its attention to its eastern neighbors. The Fall of France in June shocked the American public, and isolationist sentiment declined.

Both parties gave support to his plans for a rapid build-up of the American military, but the isolationists warned that Roosevelt would get the nation into an unnecessary war with Germany.

The size of the army would increase from , men at the end of to 1. In the months prior to the July Democratic National Convention , there was much speculation as to whether Roosevelt would run for an unprecedented third term.

The two-term tradition, although not yet enshrined in the Constitution , [h] had been established by George Washington when he refused to run for a third term in the presidential election.

Roosevelt refused to give a definitive statement as to his willingness to be a candidate again, and he even indicated to some ambitious Democrats, such as James Farley, that he would not run for a third term and that they could seek the Democratic nomination.

However, as Germany swept through Western Europe and menaced Britain in mid, Roosevelt decided that only he had the necessary experience and skills to see the nation safely through the Nazi threat.

He was aided by the party's political bosses, who feared that no Democrat except Roosevelt could defeat Wendell Willkie , the popular Republican nominee.

At the July Democratic Convention in Chicago, Roosevelt easily swept aside challenges from Farley and Vice President Garner, who had turned against Roosevelt in his second term because of his liberal economic and social policies.

But Roosevelt insisted that without Wallace on the ticket he would decline re-nomination, and Wallace won the vice-presidential nomination, defeating Speaker of the House William B.

Bankhead and other candidates. A late August poll taken by Gallup found the race to be essentially tied, but Roosevelt's popularity surged in September following the announcement of the Destroyers for Bases Agreement.

Roosevelt's third term was dominated by World War II. By , re-armament was in high gear, partly to expand and re-equip the Army and Navy and partly to become the " Arsenal of Democracy " for Britain and other countries.

Thus, Roosevelt had committed the U. Through the use of news, film and radio broadcast media in the United States, Roosevelt sought to enhance his Good Neighbor policy, promote Pan-Americanism and forestall military hostility in Latin America through the use of cultural diplomacy.

In August , Roosevelt and Churchill conducted a highly secret bilateral meeting in which they drafted the Atlantic Charter , conceptually outlining global wartime and postwar goals.

This would be the first of several wartime conferences ; [] Churchill and Roosevelt would meet ten more times in person.

Navy would assume an escort role for Allied convoys in the Atlantic as far east as Great Britain and would fire upon German ships or submarines U-boats of the Kriegsmarine if they entered the U.

This "shoot on sight" policy effectively declared naval war on Germany and was favored by Americans by a margin of 2-to After the German invasion of Poland, the primary concern of both Roosevelt and his top military staff was on the war in Europe, but Japan also presented foreign policy challenges.

Relations with Japan had continually deteriorated since its invasion of Manchuria in , and they had further worsened with Roosevelt's support of China.

The pact bound each country to defend the others against attack, and Germany, Japan, and Italy became known as the Axis powers.

The Japanese were incensed by the embargo and Japanese leaders became determined to attack the United States unless it lifted the embargo. The Roosevelt administration was unwilling to reverse policy, and Secretary of State Hull blocked a potential summit between Roosevelt and Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe.

At the same time, separate Japanese task forces attacked Thailand , British Hong Kong , the Philippines, and other targets.

Roosevelt called for war in his famous " Infamy Speech " to Congress, in which he said: On December 11, , Hitler and Mussolini declared war on the United States, which responded in kind.

A majority of scholars have rejected the conspiracy theories that Roosevelt, or any other high government officials, knew in advance about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.

Senior American officials were aware that war was imminent, but they did not expect an attack on Pearl Harbor. In late December Churchill and Roosevelt met at the Arcadia Conference , which established a joint strategy between the U.

Both agreed on a Europe first strategy that prioritized the defeat of Germany before Japan. In , Roosevelt formed a new body, the Joint Chiefs of Staff , which made the final decisions on American military strategy.

Marshall led the Army and was in nominal control of the Air Force, which in practice was commanded by General Hap Arnold.

Leahy , the most senior officer in the military. Roosevelt avoided the State Department and conducted high level diplomacy through his aides, especially Harry Hopkins, whose influence was bolstered by his control of the Lend Lease funds.

Szilard realized that the recently discovered process of nuclear fission could be used to create a nuclear chain reaction that could be used as a weapon of mass destruction.

Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to jointly pursue the project, and Roosevelt helped ensure that American scientists cooperated with their British counterparts.

The Allies formulated strategy in a series of high-profile conferences as well as by contact through diplomatic and military channels.

In November , Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met to discuss strategy and post-war plans at the Tehran Conference , where Roosevelt met Stalin for the first time.

Subsequent conferences at Bretton Woods and Dumbarton Oaks established the framework for the post-war international monetary system and the United Nations , an intergovernmental organization similar to Wilson's failed League of Nations.

With the end of the war in Europe approaching, Roosevelt's primary focus was on convincing Stalin to enter the war against Japan; the Joint Chiefs had estimated that an American invasion of Japan would cause as many as one million American casualties.

In return for the Soviet Union's entrance into the war against Japan, the Soviet Union was promised control of Asian territories such as Sakhalin Island.

The three leaders agreed to hold a conference in to establish the United Nations, and they also agreed on the structure of the United Nations Security Council , which would be charged with ensuring international peace and security.

Roosevelt did not push for the immediate evacuation of Soviet soldiers from Poland, but he won the issuance of the Declaration on Liberated Europe, which promised free elections in countries that had been occupied by Germany.

Germany itself would not be dismembered, but would be jointly occupied by the United States, France, Britain, and the Soviet Union.

At the conference, Roosevelt also announced that he would only accept the unconditional surrender of Germany, Japan, and Italy.

Eisenhower , who had successfully commanded a multinational coalition in North Africa and Sicily. Supported by 12, aircraft and the largest naval force ever assembled, the Allies successfully established a beachhead in Normandy and then advanced further into France.

After most of France had been liberated from German occupation, Roosevelt granted formal recognition to de Gaulle's government in October In the opening weeks of the war, Japan conquered the Philippines and the British and Dutch colonies in Southeast Asia.

The Japanese advance reached its maximum extent by June , when the U. Navy scored a decisive victory at the Battle of Midway. American and Australian forces then began a slow and costly strategy called island hopping or leapfrogging through the Pacific Islands, with the objective of gaining bases from which strategic airpower could be brought to bear on Japan and from which Japan could ultimately be invaded.

In contrast to Hitler, Roosevelt took no direct part in the tactical naval operations, though he approved strategic decisions.

The strength of the Japanese navy was decimated in the Battle of Leyte Gulf , and by April the Allies had re-captured much of their lost territory in the Pacific.

The home front was subject to dynamic social changes throughout the war, though domestic issues were no longer Roosevelt's most urgent policy concern.

The military buildup spurred economic growth. Unemployment fell in half from 7. African Americans from the South went to California and other West Coast states for new jobs in the defense industry.

To pay for increased government spending, in Roosevelt proposed that Congress enact an income tax rate of In , with the United States now in the conflict, war production increased dramatically, but fell short of the goals established by the president, due in part to manpower shortages.

The production capacity of the United States dwarfed that of other countries; for example, in , the United States produced more military aircraft than the combined production of Germany, Japan, Britain, and the Soviet Union.

Jones , in charge of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation ; both agencies assumed responsibility for acquisition of rubber supplies and came to loggerheads over funding.

Roosevelt resolved the dispute by dissolving both agencies. Byrnes , who came to be known as the "assistant president" due to his influence.

Bill , which would create a massive benefits program for returning soldiers. Benefits included post-secondary education , medical care, unemployment insurance, job counseling, and low-cost loans for homes and businesses.

Bill passed unanimously in both houses of Congress and was signed into law in June Of the fifteen million Americans who served in World War II, more than half benefitted from the educational opportunities provided for in the G.

Roosevelt, a chain-smoker throughout his entire adult life, [] [] had been in declining physical health since at least In March , shortly after his 62nd birthday, he underwent testing at Bethesda Hospital and was found to have high blood pressure , atherosclerosis , coronary artery disease causing angina pectoris , and congestive heart failure.

Hospital physicians and two outside specialists ordered Roosevelt to rest. His personal physician, Admiral Ross McIntire, created a daily schedule that banned business guests for lunch and incorporated two hours of rest each day.

During the re-election campaign, McIntire denied several times that Roosevelt's health was poor; on October 12, for example, he announced that "The President's health is perfectly OK.

There are absolutely no organic difficulties at all. While some Democrats had opposed Roosevelt's nomination in , the president faced little difficulty in securing his re-nomination at the Democratic National Convention.

Roosevelt made it clear before the convention that he was seeking another term, and on the lone presidential ballot of the convention Roosevelt won the vast majority of delegates, although a minority of Southern Democrats voted for Harry F.

Party leaders prevailed upon Roosevelt to drop Vice President Wallace from the ticket, believing him to be an electoral liability and a poor potential successor in case of Roosevelt's death.

Truman of Missouri, who had earned renown for his investigation of war production inefficiency and was acceptable to the various factions of the party.

On the second vice presidential ballot of the convention, Truman defeated Wallace to win the nomination. The Republicans nominated Thomas E. Dewey , the governor of New York, who had a reputation as a liberal in his party.

The opposition lambasted Roosevelt and his administration for domestic corruption, bureaucratic inefficiency, tolerance of Communism, and military blunders.

Labor unions, which had grown rapidly in the war, fully supported Roosevelt. Roosevelt and Truman won the election by a comfortable margin, defeating Dewey and his running mate John W.

When Roosevelt returned to the United States from the Yalta Conference, many were shocked to see how old, thin and frail he looked. He spoke while seated in the well of the House, an unprecedented concession to his physical incapacity.

When Stalin accused the western Allies of plotting behind his back a separate peace with Hitler, Roosevelt replied: On the afternoon of April 12, Roosevelt said, "I have a terrific headache.

The president's attending cardiologist, Dr. Howard Bruenn, diagnosed the medical emergency as a massive cerebral hemorrhage.

On the morning of April 13, Roosevelt's body was placed in a flag-draped coffin and loaded onto the presidential train for the trip back to Washington.

Along the route, thousands flocked to the tracks to pay their respects. Roosevelt's declining physical health had been kept secret from the general public.

His death was met with shock and grief across the U. Roosevelt had lived to witness this day". Truman would preside over the demobilization of the war effort and the establishment of the United Nations and other postwar institutions envisioned during Roosevelt's presidency.

Roosevelt was viewed as a hero by many African Americans, Catholics, and Jews, and he was highly successful in attracting large majorities of these voters into his New Deal coalition.

Sitkoff reports that the WPA "provided an economic floor for the whole black community in the s, rivaling both agriculture and domestic service as the chief source" of income.

Roosevelt did not join NAACP leaders in pushing for federal anti- lynching legislation, as he believed that such legislation was unlikely to pass and that his support for it would alienate Southern congressmen.

He did, however, appoint a " Black Cabinet " of African American advisers to advise on race relations and African American issues, and he publicly denounced lynching as "murder.

The FEPC was the first national program directed against employment discrimination , and it played a major role in opening up new employment opportunities to non-white workers.

The attack on Pearl Harbor raised concerns in the public regarding the possibility of sabotage by Japanese Americans. This suspicion was fed by long-standing racism against Japanese immigrants, as well as the findings of the Roberts Commission , which concluded that the attack on Pearl Harbor had been assisted by Japanese spies.

On February 19, , President Roosevelt signed Executive Order , which relocated hundreds of thousands of the Japanese-American citizens and immigrants.

They were forced to liquidate their properties and businesses and interned in hastily built camps in interior, harsh locations.

Distracted by other issues, Roosevelt had delegated the decision for internment to Secretary of War Stimson, who in turn relied on the judgment of Assistant Secretary of War John J.

The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the executive order in the case of Korematsu v. After Kristallnacht in , Roosevelt helped expedite Jewish immigration from Germany and allowed Austrian and German citizens already in the United States to stay indefinitely.

He was prevented from accepting more Jewish immigrants by the restrictive Immigration Act of , the prevalence of nativism and antisemitism among voters and members of Congress, and some resistance in the American Jewish community to the acceptance of Eastern European Jewish immigrants.

Against the objections of the State Department, Roosevelt convinced the other Allied leaders to jointly issue the Joint Declaration by Members of the United Nations , which condemned the ongoing Holocaust and promised to try its perpetrators as war criminals.

Aside from these actions, Roosevelt believed that the best way to help the persecuted populations of Europe was to end the war as quickly as possible.

Top military leaders and War Department leaders rejected any campaign to bomb the extermination camps or the rail lines leading to the camps, fearing it would be a diversion from the war effort.

According to biographer Jean Edward Smith, there is no evidence that anyone ever proposed such a campaign to Roosevelt.

Roosevelt is widely considered to be one of the most important figures in the history of the United States , [] as well as one of the most influential figures of the 20th century.

The rapid expansion of government programs that occurred during Roosevelt's term redefined the role of the government in the United States, and Roosevelt's advocacy of government social programs was instrumental in redefining liberalism for coming generations.

His isolationist critics faded away, and even the Republicans joined in his overall policies. Many members of his administration played leading roles in the administrations of Truman, Kennedy and Johnson , each of whom embraced Roosevelt's political legacy.

During his presidency, and continuing to a lesser extent afterwards, there has been much criticism of Roosevelt , some of it intense.

Critics have questioned not only his policies, positions , and the consolidation of power that occurred due to his responses to the crises of the Depression and World War II, but also his breaking with tradition by running for a third term as president.

The largest, the 7. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. James Roosevelt I Sara Roosevelt. Roosevelt family Delano family.

A young, unbreeched Roosevelt in , 2 years old [a]. Roosevelt in , at the age of Governorship of Franklin D. United States presidential election, Presidency of Franklin D.

First and second terms of the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt Supreme Court candidates and Hughes Court.

Third and fourth terms of the presidency of Franklin D. Events leading to the attack on Pearl Harbor. History of nuclear weapons and Nuclear weapons of the United States.

Diplomatic history of World War II. United States presidential election, and Democratic Party vice presidential candidate selection, Last photograph of Roosevelt, taken April 11, , the day before his death.

Roosevelt's funeral procession in Washington, D.

2. us präsident -

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An attempt by Huey Long and other individuals to organize a left-wing alternative to the Democratic Party collapsed after Long's death in In the presidential election against Republican Alf Landon and a third party candidate, Roosevelt won The election also saw the consolidation of the New Deal coalition; while the Democrats lost some of their traditional allies in big business, they were replaced by groups such as organized labor and African Americans, the latter of whom voted Democratic for the first time since the Civil War.

He won 86 percent of the Jewish vote, 81 percent of Catholics, 80 percent of union members, 76 percent of Southerners, 76 percent of Blacks in northern cities, and 75 percent of people on relief.

Roosevelt carried of the nation's cities with a population of , or more. The Supreme Court became Roosevelt's primary domestic focus during his second term after the court overturned many of his programs, including NIRA.

The more conservative members of the court upheld the principles of the Lochner era , which saw numerous economic regulations struck down on the basis of freedom of contract.

The size of the Court had been set at nine since the passage of the Judiciary Act of , and Congress had altered the number of Justices six other times throughout U.

Starting with the case of West Coast Hotel Co. Parrish , the court began to take a more favorable view of economic regulations.

That same year, Roosevelt appointed a Supreme Court Justice for the first time, and by , seven of the nine Justices had been appointed by Roosevelt.

Jackson , Hugo Black , and William O. Douglas , would be particularly influential in re-shaping the jurisprudence of the Court.

With Roosevelt's influence on the wane following the failure of the Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of , conservative Democrats joined with Republicans to block the implementation of further New Deal programs.

The FLSA outlawed child labor , established a federal minimum wage , and required overtime pay for certain employees who work in excess of forty-hours per week.

This managed to eventually create as many as 3. Beyond this, however, Roosevelt recommended to a special congressional session only a permanent national farm act, administrative reorganization, and regional planning measures, all of which were leftovers from a regular session.

According to Burns, this attempt illustrated Roosevelt's inability to decide on a basic economic program. Determined to overcome the opposition of conservative Democrats in Congress, Roosevelt became involved in the Democratic primaries, actively campaigning for challengers who were more supportive of New Deal reform.

Roosevelt failed badly, managing to defeat only one target, a conservative Democrat from New York City. When Congress reconvened in , Republicans under Senator Robert Taft formed a Conservative coalition with Southern Democrats, virtually ending Roosevelt's ability to enact his domestic proposals.

Roosevelt had a lifelong interest in the environment and conservation starting with his youthful interest in forestry on his family estate.

Although Roosevelt was never an outdoorsman or sportsman on Theodore Roosevelt's scale, his growth of the national systems were comparable.

Every state had its own state parks, and Roosevelt made sure that WPA and CCC projects were set up to upgrade them as well as the national systems.

Government spending increased from 8. It increased in "a depression within a depression" but continually declined after The main foreign policy initiative of Roosevelt's first term was the Good Neighbor Policy , which was a re-evaluation of U.

After Roosevelt took office, he withdrew U. In December , Roosevelt signed the Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States, renouncing the right to intervene unilaterally in the affairs of Latin American countries.

The rejection of the Treaty of Versailles during the Wilson administration marked the dominance of isolationism in American foreign policy.

Despite Roosevelt's Wilsonian background, he and Secretary of State Cordell Hull acted with great care not to provoke isolationist sentiment.

The isolationist movement was bolstered in the early to mids by Senator Gerald Nye and others who succeeded in their effort to stop the "merchants of death" in the U.

Germany annexed Austria in , and soon turned its attention to its eastern neighbors. The Fall of France in June shocked the American public, and isolationist sentiment declined.

Both parties gave support to his plans for a rapid build-up of the American military, but the isolationists warned that Roosevelt would get the nation into an unnecessary war with Germany.

The size of the army would increase from , men at the end of to 1. In the months prior to the July Democratic National Convention , there was much speculation as to whether Roosevelt would run for an unprecedented third term.

The two-term tradition, although not yet enshrined in the Constitution , [h] had been established by George Washington when he refused to run for a third term in the presidential election.

Roosevelt refused to give a definitive statement as to his willingness to be a candidate again, and he even indicated to some ambitious Democrats, such as James Farley, that he would not run for a third term and that they could seek the Democratic nomination.

However, as Germany swept through Western Europe and menaced Britain in mid, Roosevelt decided that only he had the necessary experience and skills to see the nation safely through the Nazi threat.

He was aided by the party's political bosses, who feared that no Democrat except Roosevelt could defeat Wendell Willkie , the popular Republican nominee.

At the July Democratic Convention in Chicago, Roosevelt easily swept aside challenges from Farley and Vice President Garner, who had turned against Roosevelt in his second term because of his liberal economic and social policies.

But Roosevelt insisted that without Wallace on the ticket he would decline re-nomination, and Wallace won the vice-presidential nomination, defeating Speaker of the House William B.

Bankhead and other candidates. A late August poll taken by Gallup found the race to be essentially tied, but Roosevelt's popularity surged in September following the announcement of the Destroyers for Bases Agreement.

Roosevelt's third term was dominated by World War II. By , re-armament was in high gear, partly to expand and re-equip the Army and Navy and partly to become the " Arsenal of Democracy " for Britain and other countries.

Thus, Roosevelt had committed the U. Through the use of news, film and radio broadcast media in the United States, Roosevelt sought to enhance his Good Neighbor policy, promote Pan-Americanism and forestall military hostility in Latin America through the use of cultural diplomacy.

In August , Roosevelt and Churchill conducted a highly secret bilateral meeting in which they drafted the Atlantic Charter , conceptually outlining global wartime and postwar goals.

This would be the first of several wartime conferences ; [] Churchill and Roosevelt would meet ten more times in person.

Navy would assume an escort role for Allied convoys in the Atlantic as far east as Great Britain and would fire upon German ships or submarines U-boats of the Kriegsmarine if they entered the U.

This "shoot on sight" policy effectively declared naval war on Germany and was favored by Americans by a margin of 2-to After the German invasion of Poland, the primary concern of both Roosevelt and his top military staff was on the war in Europe, but Japan also presented foreign policy challenges.

Relations with Japan had continually deteriorated since its invasion of Manchuria in , and they had further worsened with Roosevelt's support of China.

The pact bound each country to defend the others against attack, and Germany, Japan, and Italy became known as the Axis powers.

The Japanese were incensed by the embargo and Japanese leaders became determined to attack the United States unless it lifted the embargo.

The Roosevelt administration was unwilling to reverse policy, and Secretary of State Hull blocked a potential summit between Roosevelt and Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe.

At the same time, separate Japanese task forces attacked Thailand , British Hong Kong , the Philippines, and other targets. Roosevelt called for war in his famous " Infamy Speech " to Congress, in which he said: On December 11, , Hitler and Mussolini declared war on the United States, which responded in kind.

A majority of scholars have rejected the conspiracy theories that Roosevelt, or any other high government officials, knew in advance about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.

Senior American officials were aware that war was imminent, but they did not expect an attack on Pearl Harbor. In late December Churchill and Roosevelt met at the Arcadia Conference , which established a joint strategy between the U.

Both agreed on a Europe first strategy that prioritized the defeat of Germany before Japan. In , Roosevelt formed a new body, the Joint Chiefs of Staff , which made the final decisions on American military strategy.

Marshall led the Army and was in nominal control of the Air Force, which in practice was commanded by General Hap Arnold. Leahy , the most senior officer in the military.

Roosevelt avoided the State Department and conducted high level diplomacy through his aides, especially Harry Hopkins, whose influence was bolstered by his control of the Lend Lease funds.

Szilard realized that the recently discovered process of nuclear fission could be used to create a nuclear chain reaction that could be used as a weapon of mass destruction.

Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to jointly pursue the project, and Roosevelt helped ensure that American scientists cooperated with their British counterparts.

The Allies formulated strategy in a series of high-profile conferences as well as by contact through diplomatic and military channels. In November , Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met to discuss strategy and post-war plans at the Tehran Conference , where Roosevelt met Stalin for the first time.

Subsequent conferences at Bretton Woods and Dumbarton Oaks established the framework for the post-war international monetary system and the United Nations , an intergovernmental organization similar to Wilson's failed League of Nations.

With the end of the war in Europe approaching, Roosevelt's primary focus was on convincing Stalin to enter the war against Japan; the Joint Chiefs had estimated that an American invasion of Japan would cause as many as one million American casualties.

In return for the Soviet Union's entrance into the war against Japan, the Soviet Union was promised control of Asian territories such as Sakhalin Island.

The three leaders agreed to hold a conference in to establish the United Nations, and they also agreed on the structure of the United Nations Security Council , which would be charged with ensuring international peace and security.

Roosevelt did not push for the immediate evacuation of Soviet soldiers from Poland, but he won the issuance of the Declaration on Liberated Europe, which promised free elections in countries that had been occupied by Germany.

Germany itself would not be dismembered, but would be jointly occupied by the United States, France, Britain, and the Soviet Union.

At the conference, Roosevelt also announced that he would only accept the unconditional surrender of Germany, Japan, and Italy. Eisenhower , who had successfully commanded a multinational coalition in North Africa and Sicily.

Supported by 12, aircraft and the largest naval force ever assembled, the Allies successfully established a beachhead in Normandy and then advanced further into France.

After most of France had been liberated from German occupation, Roosevelt granted formal recognition to de Gaulle's government in October In the opening weeks of the war, Japan conquered the Philippines and the British and Dutch colonies in Southeast Asia.

The Japanese advance reached its maximum extent by June , when the U. Navy scored a decisive victory at the Battle of Midway. American and Australian forces then began a slow and costly strategy called island hopping or leapfrogging through the Pacific Islands, with the objective of gaining bases from which strategic airpower could be brought to bear on Japan and from which Japan could ultimately be invaded.

In contrast to Hitler, Roosevelt took no direct part in the tactical naval operations, though he approved strategic decisions.

The strength of the Japanese navy was decimated in the Battle of Leyte Gulf , and by April the Allies had re-captured much of their lost territory in the Pacific.

The home front was subject to dynamic social changes throughout the war, though domestic issues were no longer Roosevelt's most urgent policy concern.

The military buildup spurred economic growth. Unemployment fell in half from 7. African Americans from the South went to California and other West Coast states for new jobs in the defense industry.

To pay for increased government spending, in Roosevelt proposed that Congress enact an income tax rate of In , with the United States now in the conflict, war production increased dramatically, but fell short of the goals established by the president, due in part to manpower shortages.

The production capacity of the United States dwarfed that of other countries; for example, in , the United States produced more military aircraft than the combined production of Germany, Japan, Britain, and the Soviet Union.

Jones , in charge of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation ; both agencies assumed responsibility for acquisition of rubber supplies and came to loggerheads over funding.

Roosevelt resolved the dispute by dissolving both agencies. Byrnes , who came to be known as the "assistant president" due to his influence.

Bill , which would create a massive benefits program for returning soldiers. Benefits included post-secondary education , medical care, unemployment insurance, job counseling, and low-cost loans for homes and businesses.

Bill passed unanimously in both houses of Congress and was signed into law in June Of the fifteen million Americans who served in World War II, more than half benefitted from the educational opportunities provided for in the G.

Roosevelt, a chain-smoker throughout his entire adult life, [] [] had been in declining physical health since at least In March , shortly after his 62nd birthday, he underwent testing at Bethesda Hospital and was found to have high blood pressure , atherosclerosis , coronary artery disease causing angina pectoris , and congestive heart failure.

Hospital physicians and two outside specialists ordered Roosevelt to rest. His personal physician, Admiral Ross McIntire, created a daily schedule that banned business guests for lunch and incorporated two hours of rest each day.

During the re-election campaign, McIntire denied several times that Roosevelt's health was poor; on October 12, for example, he announced that "The President's health is perfectly OK.

There are absolutely no organic difficulties at all. While some Democrats had opposed Roosevelt's nomination in , the president faced little difficulty in securing his re-nomination at the Democratic National Convention.

Roosevelt made it clear before the convention that he was seeking another term, and on the lone presidential ballot of the convention Roosevelt won the vast majority of delegates, although a minority of Southern Democrats voted for Harry F.

Party leaders prevailed upon Roosevelt to drop Vice President Wallace from the ticket, believing him to be an electoral liability and a poor potential successor in case of Roosevelt's death.

Truman of Missouri, who had earned renown for his investigation of war production inefficiency and was acceptable to the various factions of the party.

On the second vice presidential ballot of the convention, Truman defeated Wallace to win the nomination. The Republicans nominated Thomas E.

Dewey , the governor of New York, who had a reputation as a liberal in his party. The opposition lambasted Roosevelt and his administration for domestic corruption, bureaucratic inefficiency, tolerance of Communism, and military blunders.

Labor unions, which had grown rapidly in the war, fully supported Roosevelt. Roosevelt and Truman won the election by a comfortable margin, defeating Dewey and his running mate John W.

When Roosevelt returned to the United States from the Yalta Conference, many were shocked to see how old, thin and frail he looked. He spoke while seated in the well of the House, an unprecedented concession to his physical incapacity.

When Stalin accused the western Allies of plotting behind his back a separate peace with Hitler, Roosevelt replied: On the afternoon of April 12, Roosevelt said, "I have a terrific headache.

The president's attending cardiologist, Dr. Howard Bruenn, diagnosed the medical emergency as a massive cerebral hemorrhage. On the morning of April 13, Roosevelt's body was placed in a flag-draped coffin and loaded onto the presidential train for the trip back to Washington.

Along the route, thousands flocked to the tracks to pay their respects. Roosevelt's declining physical health had been kept secret from the general public.

His death was met with shock and grief across the U. Roosevelt had lived to witness this day". Truman would preside over the demobilization of the war effort and the establishment of the United Nations and other postwar institutions envisioned during Roosevelt's presidency.

Roosevelt was viewed as a hero by many African Americans, Catholics, and Jews, and he was highly successful in attracting large majorities of these voters into his New Deal coalition.

Sitkoff reports that the WPA "provided an economic floor for the whole black community in the s, rivaling both agriculture and domestic service as the chief source" of income.

Roosevelt did not join NAACP leaders in pushing for federal anti- lynching legislation, as he believed that such legislation was unlikely to pass and that his support for it would alienate Southern congressmen.

He did, however, appoint a " Black Cabinet " of African American advisers to advise on race relations and African American issues, and he publicly denounced lynching as "murder.

The FEPC was the first national program directed against employment discrimination , and it played a major role in opening up new employment opportunities to non-white workers.

The attack on Pearl Harbor raised concerns in the public regarding the possibility of sabotage by Japanese Americans. This suspicion was fed by long-standing racism against Japanese immigrants, as well as the findings of the Roberts Commission , which concluded that the attack on Pearl Harbor had been assisted by Japanese spies.

On February 19, , President Roosevelt signed Executive Order , which relocated hundreds of thousands of the Japanese-American citizens and immigrants.

They were forced to liquidate their properties and businesses and interned in hastily built camps in interior, harsh locations.

Distracted by other issues, Roosevelt had delegated the decision for internment to Secretary of War Stimson, who in turn relied on the judgment of Assistant Secretary of War John J.

The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the executive order in the case of Korematsu v. After Kristallnacht in , Roosevelt helped expedite Jewish immigration from Germany and allowed Austrian and German citizens already in the United States to stay indefinitely.

He was prevented from accepting more Jewish immigrants by the restrictive Immigration Act of , the prevalence of nativism and antisemitism among voters and members of Congress, and some resistance in the American Jewish community to the acceptance of Eastern European Jewish immigrants.

Against the objections of the State Department, Roosevelt convinced the other Allied leaders to jointly issue the Joint Declaration by Members of the United Nations , which condemned the ongoing Holocaust and promised to try its perpetrators as war criminals.

Aside from these actions, Roosevelt believed that the best way to help the persecuted populations of Europe was to end the war as quickly as possible.

Top military leaders and War Department leaders rejected any campaign to bomb the extermination camps or the rail lines leading to the camps, fearing it would be a diversion from the war effort.

According to biographer Jean Edward Smith, there is no evidence that anyone ever proposed such a campaign to Roosevelt. Roosevelt is widely considered to be one of the most important figures in the history of the United States , [] as well as one of the most influential figures of the 20th century.

The rapid expansion of government programs that occurred during Roosevelt's term redefined the role of the government in the United States, and Roosevelt's advocacy of government social programs was instrumental in redefining liberalism for coming generations.

His isolationist critics faded away, and even the Republicans joined in his overall policies. Many members of his administration played leading roles in the administrations of Truman, Kennedy and Johnson , each of whom embraced Roosevelt's political legacy.

During his presidency, and continuing to a lesser extent afterwards, there has been much criticism of Roosevelt , some of it intense. Critics have questioned not only his policies, positions , and the consolidation of power that occurred due to his responses to the crises of the Depression and World War II, but also his breaking with tradition by running for a third term as president.

The largest, the 7. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. James Roosevelt I Sara Roosevelt. Roosevelt family Delano family.

A young, unbreeched Roosevelt in , 2 years old [a]. Roosevelt in , at the age of Governorship of Franklin D. United States presidential election, Presidency of Franklin D.

First and second terms of the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt Supreme Court candidates and Hughes Court. Third and fourth terms of the presidency of Franklin D.

Events leading to the attack on Pearl Harbor. History of nuclear weapons and Nuclear weapons of the United States.

Diplomatic history of World War II. United States presidential election, and Democratic Party vice presidential candidate selection, Last photograph of Roosevelt, taken April 11, , the day before his death.

Roosevelt's funeral procession in Washington, D. Roosevelt's record on civil rights. Dime with a portrait of Roosevelt; popularly known as Roosevelt Dime.

List of memorials to Franklin D. FDR Pearl Harbor speech. Speech given before Joint Session of Congress in entirety. Section of Pearl Harbor speech with famous phrase.

Not only did the power of the South in the Democratic party diminish, but without the repeal it is open to question whether FDR could have been renominated in Johnson and Hubert Humphrey would later set a new record, taking However, in , Roosevelt elevated Stone to the position of Chief Justice.

Japan gave up its own program in Retrieved July 24, — via YouTube. The New York Times. Retrieved December 20, Retrieved April 6, Archived from the original on March 4, Retrieved February 7, Retrieved January 29, Retrieved October 9, Retrieved on July 14, Business, Labor, and Politics in America, — p.

FDR and the Presidential Campaign. The American Historical Review. Retrieved March 1, The Supreme Court Reborn: The Constitutional Revolution in the Age of Roosevelt.

Retrieved October 10, Justices, Rulings, and Legacy. Retrieved March 3, A Model for Leadership". FDR and the Environment.

Retrieved April 23, Journal of Economic Perspectives. The Bureau of the U. The New York Times graphic.

Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs. Retrieved December 2, The Election of and the Politics of War.

Records of the Office of Inter-American Affairs. National Archive at www. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, p.

Executive Order " , Federal Register , Retrieved October 14, Bureau of the Census, , p. National Institutes of Health.

Retrieved July 25, The man who conquered fear". Annals of Internal Medicine. Roosevelt dies at 63 in ".

New York Daily News. Retrieved December 29, United States Presidents and Cerebrovascular Disease". Retrieved February 21, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs.

A new deal for Blacks: The American Economic Review. Retrieved October 13, US News and World Report. Archived from the original on November 2, Retrieved May 4, From Washington to Clinton".

From Harry Truman to George W. Retrieved January 19, Retrieved June 19, Retrieved January 22, Alter, Jonathan , The Defining Moment: Champion of Freedom interpretive detailed biography.

Traitor to His Class: Roosevelt and the Land of America. Burns, James MacGregor The Lion and the Fox.

The Soldier of Freedom. Robert Moses and the Fall of New York. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, — Roosevelt , 4 volumes, Little, Brown and Co.

Roosevelt Launching the New Deal FDR and His Enemies: Goodwin, Doris Kearns Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt: The New Deal and the Problem of Monopoly.

From Colony to Superpower; U. Foreign Relations Since Lash, Joseph P From Teddy Roosevelt to Bill Clinton. Roosevelt and the New Deal, — Documentary History of the Franklin D.

The bank holiday and the emergency banking act, March University Publications of America. The Presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. University Press of Kansas.

Morgan, Ted , FDR: Norton, Mary Beth A People and a Nation: A History of the United States. Robinson, Greg , By Order of the President: His Personal Letters, Duell, Sloan, and Pearce.

Churchill and Roosevelt at War: New York University Press. Roosevelt, the Party Leader, — University Press of Kentucky. Schweikart, Larry; Allen, Michael A Patriot's History of the United States: Smith, Jean Edward The Man He Became: Franklin Delano Roosevelt, My Boss.

The Wings of Democracy: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Roosevelt and the Making of Modern America. Bibliography of Franklin D. Road to the New Deal, — University of Illinois Press.

The War Years, — Freidel, Frank , Franklin D. A Companion to Franklin D. From Roosevelt to Truman: Potsdam, Hiroshima, and the Cold War.

In he borrowed some money and established a small manufacturing business. Initially the horse carriages were made there, but soon it started manufacturing also rail wagons.

The Phaeton was used as a model for construction of the factory's first car in , however it isn't the Phaeton's copy, whole new conception was applied.

The automobile was named the Präsident; the construction was finished in May The car had a two cylinder four stroke spark ignition Benz engine. It had two speed transmission which was propelling the rear axle via flat strap.

The bodywork was derived from a horse carriage of Mylord type. At the time NW was renowned in the monarchy for its luxurious carriages, and the automobile itself was made in according fashion.

It seated four, the two rear seats could be covered by a convertible top. The car was steered by handlebars. Tilting of the handlebars forward and backward served to change gears forward - lower gear.

The wheels were wooden with gum tyre. The unique features of the car were a differential and functional bumper.

The very first car is now in Czech National Technical Museum and is still driveable. Unfortunately, before it was handed to the Museum in , it was used in Austria to train drivers and it underwent some modifications, which infringed the original design including engine swap.

There were a few reasons why the replica was built. First of all, the company wanted to have the Präsident for the jubilee celebrations, and secondly the original underwent modifications of engine, accessory, lights, the convertible top as well as of the colour livery, and thus it couldn't represent the factory's very first car.

The work on replica started in March and were scheduled to be finished on 1 May The manufacture took place in Tatra factory and was conducted by its engineers as well as retired workers of technical department.

The engine was manufactured also by Tatra. Four of them were made - one for the "new" Präsident, one for the National Technical Museum, where it is on exposition near the original Präsident which has a larger engine than it was made with , and the two other were made to be joined as a four-cylinder used in a replica of the First Truck.

The replica is driveable and is on display in Tatra factory museum. They were named Meteor, Nesselsdorf, Wien.

They differed in design details; belt drive was replaced by a four speed gear-box with spur gears.

A cable drive was used before the gearbox, but it was not successful. In , the NW-cars Wien and Nesselsdorf , achieved their first significant racing success on the trotter course at the Prater Park in Vienna.

It was the first race in Austrian monarchy at all - started on October 23,

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